Sunday, May 24, 2020

Language and Memory Paper - 1329 Words

Language and Memory Paper Donnell M. Thomas University of Phoenix PSYCH 560/ Cognitive Psychology Dr. Kristi Collins-Johns 15th August 2010 Language and Memory Paper Introduction Language is important to the way we communicate. Semantic memory is acquired over the years and is vital to language. Language becomes second nature when we already know what, when and how to say something. We form sentences, phrases, paragraphs by planning what we say and how we will say it. Most people believe that when we speak, it is without thought and is done unconsciously. However, in this paper I will seek to explain the relationship between semantic memory and language production. Explain the nature and function of semantic memory†¦show more content†¦For every action, there is a reason for it. We have to appreciate our cognitive processes and continuing to understand how they work and what goes into making them work is so rewarding. Analyze the basic functions of language Pinker (1994c) esteems language as â€Å"the jewel in the crown of cognition.† Language serves the purpose of communicating or revealing our cognitive processes. The beautiful thing about language is that it is one of most â€Å"complex and valuable aspect of cognition† (Robinson-Riegler amp; Robinson-Riegler, 2008). Babies are able to learn language and sometime understand the language before they can speak it. There are different types of languages: sign language, English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Braille. All of these are ways that people communicate with one another depending on their culture and mental/physical circumstances (deaf, blind). One characteristic of language is that everything we refer to is symbolized by a word. The way we put words in a sentence and combine them to make sense, would conclude that we have a basic understanding of what role words play in a sentence (noun, verb, pronoun). We would not know this if not through language. Through language we are able to speak, write, read and understand. As Robinson-Riegler (2008) brings out, all the words a person knows comprise their mental lexicon and is a part of our semantic memory. When we talk about language, we also shouldShow MoreRelatedChildren And Adults With Foreign Word Learning1593 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract This paper discusses the previous research on second language learning in children and adults. It first discusses the differences in language learning among children and adults in regards to the central period hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that children are able to acquire language faster at an earlier age rather than beginning later in life. Then further examining language learning in children (implicitly) and in adults (explicitly), and that language learning is visible certainRead MoreSecond Language Learning : Children And Adults Essay1575 Words   |  7 PagesRunning head: SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING: CHILDREN AND ADULTS 1 Second Language Learning in Children and Adults Chanell Paris November 5, 2016 PSY 318: Learning, Cognition Perception: Fall ‘16 California State University, Channel Islands SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING: CHILDREN AND ADULTS 2 Abstract This paper discusses the previous research on second language learning in children and adults. It first discusses the differences in language learning between children and adults in regards to the central periodRead MoreNature of Thought859 Words   |  4 PagesThe Nature of Thought Philosophy 215 November 10, 2010 The Nature of Thought The nature of thought is a process to interpret information gathered by the brain using senses, memories, and language. The process of thinking is influenced by perceptional blocks and personal barriers. Internal and external events in cultural differences along with an individual’s economic status ultimately encourage thoughts whether negative or positive. Irrational and rational thoughts influenceRead MoreLanguage Processing And Memory Retrieval903 Words   |  4 PagesIn the past, cognitive studies on language processing and memory retrieval was mostly focused on monolingual speakers. The idea of bilingualism and its effect on memory is relatively new, but it is also considered as a rising topic in the field of psychology, linguistics, cognitive science, and second language studies. In 1993, Javier, Barroso, and Muà ±oz conducted a research with a group of Spanish-English bilingual speakers. They emphasized that language is a powerful retrieval tool and a cue to Read MoreThe History of Computer Development Essay608 Words   |  3 Pagesfor their memory, and because of that they big and were often large, taking up entire rooms to build. They are so expensive to operate because they are very large and took a lot of maintenance and in addition they use a great deal of electricity and similarly to current computers problem they generated a lot of heat thus which was often are the root cause of malfunctions. The first generation computers relied on the machine language, the earliest and lowest-level of programming language understoodRead MorePsy 300 Complete Course Material a+Work Essay993 Words   |  4 PagesPsychology Paper PSY 300 Week 2 DQs PSY 300 Week 2 DQ 1 How do classical conditioning procedures differ from operant conditioning procedures? How are they similar? In your opinion, which learning process is more effective? Why? 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Most of the time when I finished writing essays, I felt satisfied with what I wrote. I rarely try to go back and improve my own writings. The Unreliability of Human Memory is an analytical essay from my Workload 57S class. This paper is about how human memory is unreliable due to memory distortion and changes from other influences. By rereading an essay that I wrote before, I analyzed and learned about how efficient did I write in a particular genre. For this analytical essayRead MoreCommunication with Various Groups Paper1073 Words   |  5 PagesCommunicating with Various Groups Paper Angelica De La Cruz Eileen Carlin CJS/205 Composition for Communication in the Criminal Justice System October 12, 2015 The definition of communication varies when it comes to the situation. Communication can be derived from a conversation amongst one another or communication can lead to an interview (for a job, a case, or to obtain information). â€Å"Human communication is the way in which humans exchange meaningful ideas with one another† (Justak, 2014)Read MoreLanguage and Brain 1328 Words   |  6 Pagesthe last few decades, the notion of language and brain has been highlighted in different scientific fields such as: neurology, cognitive science, linguistics biology, technology and finally education. Recently, researches findings point out that the brain is a parallel processor which can perform many types of activities at the same time. Therefore, engaging language and brain will help in developing the process of acquiring and learning a second language. In fact, it is important to understand

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Hamlet, By William Shakespeare - 1149 Words

When a person holds a great sense of vengeance within himself/herself, it may cause him/her to lose their sense of coherent thinking. This can lead to a snowball effect of tragic events and bring out the person’s deepest flaws. This was what happened to Prince Hamlet in the play by William Shakespeare. Through the process of accomplishing the four commands given to him by his father, Hamlet is swayed in various directions because of his nature of wanting to understand the whole situation himself and his flaw, which is his imbalance in controlling his actions. Due to Hamlet’s disposition, he is a person who needs to attain certainty before going forth with a plan. This shows that Hamlet is a rational man, at first, by keeping in check†¦show more content†¦Additionally, depending on King Claudius’ reaction to the play it will determine the action plan that Hamlet is going to pursue. During this time, it can be seen that Hamlet is still quite logical because of his efforts in trying to comprehend the situation at hand. However, after King Claudius’ extravagant reaction to the play’s murder scene, proving that he is the murderer, Hamlet goes mad, leading him to act impulsively. When given the four commands, Hamlet appeared to fully understand all of his duties, but soon after figuring out that King Claudius is truly the perpetrator, Hamlet adjusts his focus towards the first command that asks him to avenge his father’s death. â€Å"Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder† (page 1823). Hamlet is very committed in obtaining his vengeance, which soon becomes the only objective he had in his mind. He was willing to leave his education in studying philosophy behind to achieve this goal and was even willing to die as long as he was able to get his revenge for his father. Hamlet was ready to die for what come because he believes in Go d, but lacked the understanding of King Hamlet’s directions. Although the command to revenge the Ghost’s foul murder was the first that was demanded, there was no particular order in which the commands were to be fulfilled. This was something that was not understood by Hamlet until act III, which is when his father reappears before him to sharpen his dull understanding of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Herman Melville’s’ Moby Dick Free Essays

Introduction Moby Dick has secured the author’s reputation in the first rank of all American writers. Firstly, the novel was published in the expurgated form and was called The Whale. It was published in 1851 (Bryant 37). We will write a custom essay sample on Herman Melville’s’ Moby Dick or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"Moby Dick† is an encyclopedia of the American romanticism. Here there are thousands of private observations, concerning the developments of the American bourgeois democracy and the American public consciousness. These observations were made by writers and poets, the predecessors of Melville. Here we can see the united protest of the American romantic idea against bourgeois and capitalistic progress in its national American forms. Meaning of cannibalism In the present paper we will discuss the meaning of cannibalism in the novel (Delbanco 26). The famous citation of the chapter 65 contains deep sense that deserves thorough analysis: â€Å"Cannibals? who is not a cannibal? I tell you it will be more tolerable for the Fejee that salted down a lean missionary in his cellar against a coming famine; it will be more tolerable for that provident Fejee, I say, in the day of judgment, than for thee, civilized and enlightened gourmand, who nailest geese to the ground and feastest on their bloated livers in thy pate-de-foie-gras† (Melville 242).  Moby dick is also educational and true, because Romanticism believed that fiction had to be the only vehicle to describe the history of the past. The intention was to make the story interesting (Bryant 14). To understand the original meaning of cannibalism in the  novel it is important to establish principles which Melville has built the narration on. The attitude towards cannibals is described better in the story â€Å"Typee†. The connection with this story helps us understand the meaning of the abovementioned citation from â€Å"Moby Dick†.   Pictures of savages’ life drawn by writer bear all features of â€Å"an ideal life â€Å". Melville admired the life of the tribe, but we can’t but notice, however, that he was not going to offer the reader a happy life of savages as the sample for imitation. The poetic pictures drawn by the writer have another meaning. They are created for comparison with contemporary bourgeois civilization (Delbanco 26). According to Melville, Bourgeois civilization, in the kind it existed at the beginning of XIX century, had no future. â€Å"Ideality† of savages in has two aspects: natural and public (Bryant 37). In natural aspect the savage is ideal because it is fine, and it is fine because has kept the features of the physical shape lost by the civilized person (Bryant 15). Melville adhered the same principle when he spoke about â€Å"ideality† of cannibals’ social existence. A savage does not have property, and it does not know what money is. It is relieved by that of two harms of a civilization. They cannot have a desire to act in defiance of truth and validity (Bryant 15). There is no stimulus for that. The savage is not spoiled by a civilization, but it has the defects: cannibalism and heathenism. However, what do they mean in comparison with more severe, realized crimes of the civilized person? In Moby Dick Melville is rather laconic describing savages life elements, but narrates in detail about the bourgeois state and the legislation, police, crimes against society, about power of money, about religious prosecutions, noxious influence of the society on a person – all that precedes eschatological accidents (i.e. infringement of the right and morals, conflicts, the crimes of people demanding punishment of gods) (Bryant 36). Melville does not dismiss cannibalism, backwardness of intelligence and public consciousness, primitiveness of a life and many other negative phenomena in a life of â€Å"happy† savages. Speaking about some wild or even brutal customs of savages, he finds parallels in a life of a civilized society: cannibalism is a devil art which we find out in the invention of every possible retaliatory machines; retaliatory wars are poverty and destructions; the most furious animal in the word is the white civilized person (Delbanco 25). Symbolism as a trait of romanticism in the novel It is not the only symbolic trait in the Moby Dick. For example, all crew members are given descriptive, biblical-sounding names and Melville avoids the exact time of all events and very details. It is the evidence of allegorical mode. It is necessary to mention the mix of pragmatism and idealism (Bryant 14). For example, Ahab desires to pursue the whale and Starbuck desires to arrange a normal commercial ship dealing with whaling business. Moby Dick can be considered as the symbolical example of good and evil (Delbanco 25). Moby Dick is like a metaphor for â€Å"elements of life that are out of people’s control†. The Pequod’s desire to kill the white whale is allegorical, because the whale represents the main life goals of Ahab. What is more important is that Ahab’s revenge against Moby is analogous to people’s struggling against the fate (Bryant 14). Conclusion In conclusion it is necessary to admit that Melville thought people needed to have something to reach for in their life and the desirable goal might destroy the life of a person. Moby Dick is a real obsession which affected the life of ship crew (Bryant 37). Thus, the  system of images in â€Å"Moby Dick† makes us understand the basic ideas of the novel of Melville. Eschatological accidents often are preceded with infringement of the right and morals, conflicts and crimes of people, and the world perishes from fire, flood, cold, heat, famine. We can see this in the novel  «Moby Dick† which shows a life of the American society of the beginning of XIX century (Delbanco 15). Works cited Levine, Robert S., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Herman Melville. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Delbanco, Andrew. Melville: His World and Work. New York: Knopf, 2005 Melville, Herman: Redburn, White-Jacket, Moby-Dick (G. Thomas Tanselle, ed.) (Library of America, 1983) Bryant, John, ed. A Companion to Melville Studies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986 Bryant, John. Melville and Repose: The Rhetoric of Humor in the American Renaissance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001 How to cite Herman Melville’s’ Moby Dick, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Australian Aboriginal People-Free-Samples for Students-Myassignment

Question: Discuss about the Australian Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander People. Answer: Australian Aboriginal are the indigenous people of Australian Mainland and are legally considered as the Australian inhabitants. Whereas, Torres Strait Islander People are considered as the indigenous people of the Queensland, Australia. These Torres Strait Islander People are genetically and culturally Melanesian people (Fredericks 2013). Before the colonization by the British the Australian Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander People used to live a hunter/gatherer life style and had good quality of health. However, this Australian Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander People experience the largest incidence of health issues and shorter life expectancies compared to the non-indigenous Australians (Aiatsis.gov.au, 2017). Since the year 2006 the Australias indigenous and the non-indigenous health entities along with the NGOs and the Australian Government worked together to better the situation. This combined effort or the campaign is termed as Close the Gap (Donato and Segal 2013). The main aim of the essay is to assess the Closing the Gap Prime Ministers Report, 2017 and does it address the environmental, social, and cultural determinates of health that affects the indigenous Australians. Next the section of the report that will be put to an elaborate discussion is the Chapter 6 which deals with the healthy lives of the indigenous Australians. Within the Social determinants of health, the following things will be discussed: early life, social gradient, work, social exclusion, social support, unemployment, food, transport and addiction. In the cultural determinants of health, the following will be discussed: life experience, upbringing, group history, sexual orientation, education, age, socio economic class, gender, spiritual belief, religion, ethnicity and language. While in the environmental determinants of health, the following will be discussed: housing conditions, air quality, water quality, land and soil quality, food contamination and safety, waste dispo sal, hazardous substances, noise/ electromagnetic fields, occupational risks, agricultural methods, climate and ecosystem change and behaviors related to environment. According to Closingthegap.pmc.gov.au (2017), the report speaks that the considering the life expectancy of the indigenous Australians, the close the gap is not on track. The life expectancy of the indigenous Australians according to the year 2010-12 shows that at the time of birth, the life expectancy of the males is 69 years (the non-indigenous Australasians have life expectancy of 79 years). However, the life expectancy of the Indigenous female Australians is 73 years (the non-indigenous Australians have life expectancy of 83 years). This estimates are actually for the newborns and don not reflect the life expectancy of the people of any other group. The report stresses on the need to increase the life expectancy of the males and females by 21 and 16 years respectively (Aspin et al. 2012). The determinants of health that contribute to the reduced life expectancy are the social determinants of health which includes education, upbringing, sexual orientation, gender and also the ethn icity. The environmental determinants that contribute to the reduced life expectancy are the air quality and water quality. Whereas, the social determinants that contribute to the reduction in life expectancy are the stress, addiction towards smoking, tobacco and drugs, food, unemployment and work (Pmc.gov.au 2017). The second major concern is the incidence of cancer, due to which the mortality rates have increased and thus the gap between the non-indigenous and the indigenous people are increasing. It has been found that the chronic diseases like the cancer, circulatory, respiratory disease and diabetes are the major contributors of 70 percent deaths of indigenous people. Between the tear 1998 to 2015 the deaths due to cancer has increased by 21%. However, the percentage has declined for the non-indigenous people and is around 13%. The increased incidence of cancer also has a positive impact on the life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres islander people. Cancer Australia launched a framework called National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework works for the improvement of the cancer outcomes (Condon et al. 2014). The Cancer Australia undertakes initiatives like it supported the Aboriginal Health Council of South Australia to create resources that will help the Indigenous Aust ralasians that have the lung cancer. However, it also organizes community workshops that helps to spread the awareness and in the early detection of gynecological cancer, breast and lung cancer. The determinants of health that contribute to the increased incidence of cancer include all the three social, environmental and cultural determinants. Thus, the social determinants include the addiction towards drugs, alcohol, tobacco and smoking and poor diet. Whereas, the cultural determinants include the age, gender and geographic origin or residence. Whereas the environmental determinants include the sunlight, pollution, radiation and occupational exposure (Aihw.gov.au 2017). The another health issue that affects the majority of the Australian Aboriginals and Torres islander people is diabetes and especially type 2 diabetes. However, the incidence of the type 1 diabetes is more common among the teenagers and kids. The Closing the Gap Prime Ministers Report, 2017 says that one of the main reason of 70 percent increased indigenous death is due to the chronic disease like diabetes. The National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) is an effective initiative by the Australian Government which is managed by the Diabetes Australia. The determinants of health that affect that contribute to the health effects of the Australian Aboriginals and the Torres islander people are the social and the cultural determinants. The cultural determinants include the age, gender, ethnicity. Whereas the social determinants include the poor food habits, stress and work (Diabetesaustralia.com.au, 2017). Studies showed that risk factors like alcohol, obesity and smoking altogether increased the gap of health risks. Although reports suggested that there has been an 9% reduction in the rates of smoking among the Australian Aboriginals and Torres islander people. However, despite of all the improvements the smoking tendencies among the Australian Aboriginals and Torres islander people were 2.7 times higher than the non-indigenous Australians. The Australian Aboriginals and Torres islander people that lived in the remote places showed the higher tendencies compared to the ones that live in the non-remote places (Gould et al. 2012). Thus this situation demanded an active intervention from the Australian government and the National Tobacco Strategy 2012-18 provides a framework for the reduction of tobacco related problems in Australia. This framework emphasizes on the effective control of tobacco and monitoring the progress. The incidence of smoking is high among the individuals ages 15 an d belong from the Australian Aboriginals and Torres islands. Tackling Indigenous Smoking is a program that monitors the tobacco control practices. This program also targets the smoking behaviors among the teenagers of the Australian Aboriginals and Torres islander people and also among the pregnant women residing in the remote places. The program also grants funds for the cessation and prevention, along with evaluation and research (Tobaccoinaustralia.org.au, 2017). The prevalence of smoking among the Australian Aboriginals and Torres islander people can be contributed to the some of the determinants that promote the smoking tendencies. Like the geographical location, age and gender. Therefore, from the above disclosure, it can be concluded that the Australian Aboriginals and Torres islander people are the most affected indigenous Australians in comparison to the non-indigenous Australians. The increased incidence of the several diseases caught the attention of the Australian government that started the Close the Gap campaign in order to reduce the gap of health conditions in comparison with the non-indigenous Australians. According to the Closing the Gap Prime Ministers Report, 2017, life expectancy, cancer, diabetes and smoking are the bigger areas of concern which needs effective plans and policies so that the health conditions of the Australian Aboriginals and Torres islander people can be improved. References Aiatsis.gov.au (2017).Indigenous Australians: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. [online] Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Available at: https://aiatsis.gov.au/explore/articles/indigenous-australians-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-people [Accessed 14 Dec. 2017]. Aihw.gov.au (2017). [online] Aihw.gov.au. Available at: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/aa938fd4-21e8-4854-9207 c70306e4f2b3/13732.pdf.aspx?inline=true [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017]. Aspin, C., Brown, N., Jowsey, T., Yen, L. and Leeder, S., 2012. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study. BMC health services research, 12(1), p.143. Closingthegap.pmc.gov.au (2017). Home | Closing the Gap. [online] Closingthegap.pmc.gov.au. Available at: https://closingthegap.pmc.gov.au/ [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017]. Condon, J.R., Zhang, X., Baade, P., Griffiths, K., Cunningham, J., Roder, D.M., Coory, M., Jelfs, P.L. and Threlfall, T., 2014. Cancer survival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a national study of survival rates and excess mortality. Population Health Metrics, 12(1), p.1. Diabetesaustralia.com.au (2017). Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander people. [online] Diabetesaustralia.com.au. Available at: https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islanders [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017]. Donato, R. and Segal, L., 2013. Does Australia have the appropriate health reform agenda to close the gap in Indigenous health?. Australian Health Review, 37(2), pp.232-238. Fredericks, B., 2013. 'We don't leave our identities at the city limits': Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in urban localities. Australian Aboriginal Studies, (1), p.4. Gould, G.S., Munn, J., Watters, T., McEwen, A. and Clough, A.R., 2012. Knowledge and views about maternal tobacco smoking and barriers for cessation in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders: a systematic review and meta-ethnography. Nicotine Tobacco Research, 15(5), pp.863-874. Pmc.gov.au (2017). 2017 HPF Report - 1.19 Life expectancy at birth. [online] Pmc.gov.au. Available at: https://www.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/indigenous/hpf-2017/tier1/119.html [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017]. Tobaccoinaustralia.org.au (2017). 1.9 Prevalence of tobacco use among Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders - Tobacco In Australia. [online] Tobaccoinaustralia.org.au. Available at: https://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-1-prevalence/1-9-prevalence-of-tobacco-use-among-aboriginal-peo [Accessed 9 Dec. 2017].

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Women on Girls free essay sample

A comparison of two short stories by female authors on the subject of teenage girls: Girl by Jamaica Kincaid and Boys and Girls by Alice Munro. This paper examines Jamaica Kincaids short story Girl to Boys and Girls by Alice Munro. Both are stories about the coming of age of teenage girls and the rules enforced on them by society. The paper explores gender roles and mother-daughter relationships.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Scream essays

Scream essays Edvard Munchs The Scream was painted in the end of the 19th century, and is possibly the first Expressionist painting. The Scream was very different from the art of the time, when many artists tried to depict objective reality. Munch was a tortured soul, and it certainly showed in this painting. Most of his family had died, and he was often plagued by sickness. The Scream was not a reflection of what was going on at the time, but rather, Munchs own inner hell. It visualizes a desperate aspect of fin-de-sicle: anxiety and apocalypse. The persuasiveness of the motif shows that it also speaks to our day and age (Whaley 75 ). When Edvard Munch was asked what had inspired him to do this painting, he replied, One evening I was walking along a path, the city on one side of me and the fjord below. I felt tired and ill. I stopped and looked out across the fjord. The sun was setting, the clouds were turning blood red. I felt a scream passing through nature. It seemed to me that I could hear The Scream. I painted this picture; painted the clouds as real blood. The colors screamed (Preble 52). Some people, when they look at this painting, only see a person screaming. They see the pretty blend of colors, but dont actually realize what they are looking at. A lone emaciated figure halts on a bridge clutching his ears, his eyes and mouth open wide in a scream of anguish. Behind him a couple are walking together in the opposite direction. Barely discernible in the swirling motion of a red-blood sunset and deep blue-black fjord, are tiny boats at sea, and the suggestion of town buildings ( Preble 53). This painting was definitely the first of its kind, the first Expressionist painting. People say that a picture is worth a thousand words. If thats the case, then The Scream is worth a million. It has a message that no other painting of its time...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Organizational Systems Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Organizational Systems Theory - Essay Example If environment is Placid, Predictable, Homogeneous, Stable and Resource Munificent then structural form is Mechanistic, Bureaucratic, Centralized and Clear Goals. But if environment is Turbulent, Uncertain, Complex, Unstable and Resource Scarce then structural form is Organic, Informal, Networked; Ambiguous Goals. Since organizations differ in the type of tasks they perform and environments they face, the appropriate organizational structure in each case is a function of four factors which are Organization’s size, technology, environment and strategy. The resulting structures can be formal, differentiated, vertical, horizontal, central and complex. [4] In the book Handbook of Media Management And Economics by Alan B. Albarran, Sylvia M. Chan-Olmsted, Michael O. Wirth, it is explained that the primary approach in organizational studies to the study of issues of organizational structure has been Structural Contingency theory. This theory describes the relationship between the organizational structures and performance outcomes. Grounded in assumptions of economic rationality this theory argues that organizations will adopt structures that maximize efficiency and optimize financial performance according to the specific contingencies that exists within the organizations’ marketing environments. Consequently there is no single organizational structure that will be equally effective for all companies. According to them Structural Contingency theory first emerged in organizational studies during the 1950s and generated a great deal of attention. This book states that under this theory, organizational structures are considered to include authority, reporting, decision and communication relationships and organizational rules, among other elements. The primary contingency factors that influence organizational structures include organizational scale and task uncertainty. Small organizations and those facing low levels of