Monday, January 27, 2020

Land Vegetation Ethiopia

Land Vegetation Ethiopia 1. Project Summary Land cover/use Study projects provide policy makers, industry and community interest groups, and landholders with accurate information on  woody vegetation cover, information on changes in the cover, mapping and providing statistical information. In earlier times the northern Ethiopian highlands were characterized by humid climate and denser vegetation (Bard et al., 2000). Significant human impact on the land resource resulted in 65 per cent of the total land mass to be a dry land. Land clearing for agricultural activity has become an increasingly main topic in the natural resource debate that contrasts the economic aspects of land development to the people dependent on it and with the ecological need to conserve. This project is a one of the initiative to investigate the land cover and its respective slope of the study site and to recommend technologies applicable to the overall land cover study projects in the dry high lands of Ethiopia. The study combines field verification  and computer processing using state-of-the-art remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies. The study specifically applies and eexplore the potential of Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTER images to discriminate land use categories where the land is fragile with mixed uses villages, patches of forest, patches of grazing land, crop land, wasteland, etc. the study will also explore the potential of ASTER images to provide stereo images for DEM generation of the scene that can be used to generate the Slope. The DEM generation task will investigate developing a rational polynomial function model. At last integration of the land cover and the DEM together with other GIS data can be used as input data to classify the suitability of land for specific land use. 2. The Problem Statement and Justification for the Research More than 63% of all smallholders in Ethiopia have less than 1 hectare of land. Population is growing rapidly and, although in the northern parts of the country the average rural population density is only 33 persons per square km, the population density per unit of arable land is much higher (138 persons per square km). Land fragmentation is common and the more fragmented holdings are, the more time it takes to manage them, with potential consequences for productivity. The national average is 3.2 parcels per smallholder, though districts averages vary from a little over 1 to more than 5. The broadest areas of high fragmentation are in eastern Amhara and Tigray, although there are also districts with high average fragmentation in Gambella, parts of SNNP, and the eastern highlands. (Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration, 2001/02. Central Statistical Authority.). As a result of fragmentation, farm sizes are very small and the use of fallow is rapidly disappearing, causing problems of declining soil fertility and erosion. Population growth increases the demand for land and contributes to farming on steep and fragile soils, also leading to erosion problems. It increases demand for biomass as a source of fuel, leading to deforestation and increased burning of dung and crop residues, thus increasing the problems of erosion and nutrient depletion. Population growth increases demand for livestock products and therefore leads to increased livestock numbers, causing overgrazing and consumption of crop residues by animals. In such situation Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to improve. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of biodiversity. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. The government has envisaged long- and short-term strategies to reduce the pressure on land and land fragmentation. Among the short term strategies are providing technical and vocational training to the landless youth to enable them to find off-farm employment and encouraging emigration to urban centers and to other parts of the region for resettlement. These strategies recommended allocation and reallocation of land to be based on the land use classification to be done in detail study. Understanding the current status of land use is very important and this project will come up with important elements of current land use study using remote sensing technologies to provide reliable information that help to prepare a complete land use plan. Justification Land Cover/ Slope Study To approach the growing problems of natural resource management, spatially explicit information about physical, biotic, and human factors must be available in a variety of geographic and temporal scales (USFWS 1976). Local planners and managers require detailed knowledge of the region for which they have responsibility as well as information on the regional, state, and national levels. Land cover data are essential at several scales. Current land cover data are vital to many applications including: making basic habitat assessments, delineating specific vegetative communities, calculating soil loss, and evaluating water quantity/quality within and between watersheds. The list of categories to be mapped is determined through the objectives of the mapping effort. This thesis describes such a mapping effort, one of presenting a basic land cover/Slope map, along with methods useful for land use planning applications. The conventional methods in producing DEMs need large campaigns that result in land surveying teams using analogue or analytical techniques. In the last decades satellite stereo image based topographical map production is turned into operational state from its experimental state. Recently many local scale landscape or topographical monitoring requirements are maintained by high resolution satellite images (Kanab 2002, Zomer et al. 2002, Baily et al. 2003, Su ¨zen and Doyuran 2004a, b, Liu et al. 2004). Advantages of ASTER for land evaluation The ASTER sensor is carried on board the Terra satellite that was launched in December 1999. The sensor has 14 spectral bands; three for Very Near Infra Red (VNIR) at 15 meters resolution, six for Short Wave Infra Red at 30 meters resolution, five for Thermal Infra Red at ninety meters resolution. Graphic 1 (below) shows the band coverage of the ASTER sensor. Thus with such resolution and number of bands it is possible to discriminate small fragile lands typical of Ethiopian highlands. In addition ASTER imagery has an extra channel of image data that is created by the sensor capturing a backwards looking image for the third VNIR band. So for image band three there exists one (nadir) image channel and also a backwards looking (off nadir) image channel. This creates an along-track stereo effect that provides DEM generation capability to be used for slope study. Scope This thesis presents a small watershed land cover/Slope map representing for the northern region of the country. It will provide information just beyond the local watershed by demonstrating feasibility of using selected satellite imagery for regional planning as well. It is known that Land suitability analysis is the process of matching demand, crop requirement, and supply, the quality of the land. Where it is necessary to specify the type of specific land use (e.g for forest plantation, maize, rangeland, etc.) so as to match with crop requirement, basic land characteristics, such as depth of soil, climate, amount of pH, level of soil nutrient, depth to ground water, etc.. Thus the scope of this thesis is limited to generating parameters necessary for the land suitability analysis. Project Objectives General objective To demonstrate the feasibility of Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery to provide base line data for land use planning for sustainable land management Specific objectives Investigating discriminating power of ASTER Imagery in studying land cover in highly fragmented high lands of northern Ethiopia. To develop rational polynomial function model to generate a DEM that will be further processed to develop slope information. 4. Description of Project Activities and Methodology Selecting Study Area The landscape of Ethiopia is extremely diverse. In order to map land cover on a regional scale, it is necessary to understand the structure and dynamics of land cover on a local scale. To this end, the study area will be located to approximately represent throughout the northern part of the region. Thus the site will include major physiographic regions, i.e., predominantly mountains, valleys, and plains. On top of that the study site will be chosen on the following criteria: ease of access to allow comparison of actual land cover to images in hand, availability of current digital cover maps, and representation of regional land cover. Classification Scheme The first step in land cover mapping is to determine a classification system, i.e., to list the land categories to be mapped. Several items will be considered in this process: The objectives The characteristics of the data And the accuracy requirements. As in most well planned mapping efforts, the objectives determine the classes and the procedures used. Since the objective of this study is to identify fragmented land use types rather than classifying different vegetation types, emphasis will be placed on land impacted by human activities. The data available also determined the level of detail. ASTER imagery is assumed to be the best data currently available. The relatively high spatial resolution and the number of spectral bands of this imagery offers the best opportunities for discriminating a variety of cover types among any available satellite data such as Landsat. Imagery ASTER imagery with 15m spatial resolution, which is taken in the dry season of 2003, is the basic dataset from which land cover and Slope will be mapped. The data to be used for land cover study will be the VNIR bands (Band 1: 0.52-0.60 Lm; Band 2: 0.63-0.69Lm and Band 3N: 0.76-0.86Lm) of and 3N and 3B bands for the Slope study. A DEM created from ASTER level 1A (L1A) imagery can be expected to have a vertical accuracy of approximately 25 meters. Although in areas with less vegetation or man made features, this can rise to approximately 11 meters. It is therefore useful for small to medium scale mapping applications, 1:50,000 to 1:100,000. Only the near-infrared (NIR) channel of ASTER image has stereoscopic view capability as another NIR sensor is located as back view on board Terra satellite. Therefore, one NIR sensor collects image in nadir direction while another NIR sensor gets image in back-looking direction. Using two different looking directions, stereo imaging and DEM generation can be attained (Welch et al. 1998, Toutin 2002, Hirano et al. 2003). Training Data for image classification Since this study applies supervised classification, training data are needed at the start of classification. To this effect training data will be acquired from a variety of sources such as available maps, aerial photography of the same year and expert knowledge and review. Image Classification One scene for the land cover study and another nadir scene for the Slope study will be used for classification. To georeference the image, Ground Control Points (GCPs) will be collected from easily identifiable points using Geographic Positioning System (GPS). Image classification will be done either using pixel based supervised image classification or with object-oriented image classification depending on the accuracy to be achieved. ILWIS 3.3 software format will be the major image processing tools that will be used. Ground Truth and Classification Accuracy Assessment Before a map should be used, it is necessary to know its accuracy (Congalton1996). Accuracy assessment will be made using ground truth points to be collected from the major land use/cover types using GPS. It is recommended to have a ground truth at the same time of data acquisition, or at least within the time that the environmental condition does not change. A general rule of thumb is 75 to 100 reference points per category for a large image (Congalton 1996). However; for such a small scale study quite less number of reference points will be feasible. Statistics The Confusion Matrix In order to determine the errors in the classification, the following model called confusion matrix: (IDRISI module CONFUSE.) will be applied where: Matrix columns = ground data (assumed ‘correct) Matrix rows = map data (classified by the automatic procedure) Cells of the matrix = count of the number of observations for each (ground, map) combination Diagonal elements = agreement between ground and map; ideal is a matrix with all zero off-diagonals Errors of omission (map producers accuracy) = incorrect in column / total in column. Measures how well the map maker was able to represent the ground features. Errors of commission (map users accuracy) = incorrect in row / total in row. Measures how likely the map user is to encounter correct information while using the map. Overall map accuracy = total on diagonal / grand total Statistical test of the classification accuracy for the whole map or individual cells is possible using the kappa index of agreement Users and producers accuracy measure the correctness of each category with respect to errors of commission and omission. Accuracy of each class cannot be completely stated in one statistic; both accuracies are needed for a valid assessment. Users accuracy is obtained by dividing the number correctly classified by the total number of pixels, within the classified image, of that class assessed. A low users accuracy represents a high error of commission. Producers accuracy is calculated by dividing the number of pixels correctly classified by the total number of reference points within that class (bottom row of error matrix). A low Producers accuracy represents a high error of omission. The Kappa statistic describes the degree of superiority (expressed as a proportion), that the classification results have as compared to a random classification. DEM Generation Developments in computers, broadening of visualization applications and the availability of geospatial data, made the use of digital elevation models (DEM) an indispensable quantitative environmental variable in most of the research topics. The landscape change and process-based studies in digital Earth sciences require the excessive use of DEM (Ka ¨a ¨b 2002, Zomer et al. 2002, Baily et al. 2003, Su ¨zen and Doyuran 2004a, b, Liu et al. 2004), for landslide susceptibility/hazard assessment, erosion susceptibility, glacier monitoring, geomorphological mapping, etc., in order to quantitatively represent or to analyse the morphology or the landscape. Within this study, the major steps that will be performed are (1) pre-processing and (2) The first step in pre-processing is the orthorectification of raw L1A images. The whole scene ASTER L1A image will be orthorectified using available 1: 50,000 scaled topographic maps. DEM generation from stereoscopic imagery is dependent on establishing the mathematical model relating the scene coordinates of conjugate points to the ground coordinates of the corresponding object point. Either rigorous or approximate models can be used to establish such a relationship. Rigorous modeling necessitates a full understanding of the imaging geometry associated with the involved sensor. Moreover, it involves the external characteristics (as represented by the Exterior Orientation Parameters EOP) and the internal characteristics (as represented by the Interior Orientation Parameters IOP) of the imaging sensor. Such characteristics are derived with the help of control information, which might take the form of a calibration test field, ground control points, and/or onboard navigation units (e.g., GPS/INS). However, the derivation of these parameters might not be always possible due to: the lack of sufficient control; weak imaging geometry (especially for satellite imaging systems with narrow angular field of view); and/or intentional concealment by the data provider (e.g., Space Imaging does not release the IOP and the EOP for their commercially available imagery). Therefore, there has been an increasing interest to investigate approximate models, which do not explicitly involve the internal and external characteristics of the imaging system. (A. Habib, E. M. Kim, M. Morgan, I. Couloigne, 2005). There has been an increasing interest within the photogrammetric community to adopt approximate models since they require neither a comprehensive understanding of the imaging geometry nor the internal and external characteristics of the imaging sensor. Approximate models include Direct Linear Transformation (DLT), self-calibrating DLT (SDLT), Rational Function Model (RFM), and parallel projection (Vozikis et al., 2003; Fraser, 2000; OGC, 1999; Ono et al., 1999; Wang, 1999; Gupta et al., 1997; El-Manadili and Novak, 1996). This thesis will apply RPF; it is based on the ratios of polynomials with different degree which can vary from 1 to 3. The coefficients are estimated using a large number of Ground Control Points (GCPs). In general, the procedure for DEM generation from stereoscopic views can be summarized as follows (Shin et al., 2003): †¢ Feature selection in one of the scenes of a stereo-pair: Selected features should correspond to an interesting phenomenon in the scene and/or the object space. †¢ Identification of the conjugate feature in the other scene: This problem is known as the matching/correspondence problem within the photogrammetric and computer vision communities. †¢ Intersection procedure: Matched points in the stereo-scenes undergo an intersection procedure to produce the ground coordinates of corresponding object points. The intersection process involves the mathematical model relating the scene and ground coordinates. †¢ Point densification: High density elevation data is generated within the area under consideration through an interpolation in-between the derived points in the previous step. The image orientation with rational polynomial functions involves general transformation to describe the relationship between image and ground coordinates. They provide a generic representation of the camera object-image geometry. The RPF provided with the high resolution satellite images connect image space and object space by: Row or column = rpf (ÃŽ », Ï•, h) Where row/column is the image coordinates and ÃŽ », Ï•, and h are longitude, latitude and ellipsoidal height in geographic coordinates of WGS84 datum (Grodecki et al., 2004). Direct solutions use rational function coefficients and sensor parameters information without any control points and refinement the original coefficients. Indirect solutions use ground control points for computing coefficients without using sensor parameters (Tao, Hu 2001). Our solution is based on ground control points without any initial values of coefficients. First approximate values of parameters extract and then precise values compute with using ground control points. Rational Function Model with 20 parameters (Valadan, Sadeghiam 2002) is used in this paper as follow: Where : are the normalized row and column of pixel in image. : are the normalized coordinates of the image point in the Conventional Terrestrial (CT) coordinate system. : Rational Function Coefficients (RFCs). Estimating the RFM coefficients The method by which the RFM coefficients are recovered depends on the availability of a physical sensor model. In cases where a physical model is provided a terrain independent scheme can be applied. This scheme is based on the generation of a 3D grid in object space, using the physical sensor model. The 3D grid should contain several layers of points and its characteristics are determined by the coverage of the image and the terrain relief differences. Then, a Least Squares solution of the RFM coefficients can be derived. Finally, an estimation of the quality of the derived RFM coefficients should be carried out based on an evaluation of the residuals in a higher density 3D grid. When a physical model is not available, a terrain dependent scheme is used. As in this scheme it is not possible to generate a 3D grid, the solution is highly sensitive to the terrain relief, as well as to the distribution, number, and quality of the GCPs used. Generation The generation process involves four steps: primitive extraction, primitive matching, space intersection, and interpolation. Primitive extraction: At this stage, a decision has to be made regarding the primitives to be matched in the normalized scenes. Possible matching primitives include distinct points, linear features, and/or homogeneous regions. The choice of the matching primitives is crucial for ensuring the utmost reliability of the outcome from the DEM generation process. In this research, point features are chosen. Fà ¶rstner interest operator (Fà ¶rstner, 1986) will be used to extract distinct points from the imagery. The operator identifies points with unique grey value distribution at their vicinity (e.g., corner points).The next section discusses the matching procedure of these points. Primitive Matching: The matching criteria deal with establishing a quantitative measure that describes the degree of similarity between a template in the left scene and a matching window, of the same size, within the search space in the right scene. Either correlation coefficient or least squares matching could be used to derive such a similarity measure Space Intersection: Following the matching process, conjugate points undergo an intersection procedure to derive the ground coordinates of the corresponding object points. The RPF equation will be used for such computation. Interpolation: So far, the ground coordinates of matched interest points, which passed the consistency check, are derived through space intersection. These points are irregularly distributed and are not dense enough to represent the object space. Therefore, they need to be interpolated. In this research, Kriging will be used to interpolate the resulting object space points into regular grid. The Kriging methodology derives an estimate of the elevation at a given point as a weighted average of the heights at neighboring points. 5. Project Milestones and Expected outputs 5.1. Expected output Following are the expected outputs from this research; Based on the success of ASTER imagery in demonstrating land cover classification and slope generation, the result herein may be used as basic data to assist slope management, land use planning, and other land management efforts such as land suitability, and landslide susceptibility mapping when combined with other GIS data. Provides a procedure based on the rational polynomial function model for generating DEM directly from a stereo ASTER images, and other experimental results. In particular, the method can be quickly and easily applied to areas with little map data, and at low cost. Based on the success it can be extended for all the northern high lands of Ethiopia. 5.2. Dissemination plan The immediate users of the research result are policy makers, teaching institutes and other planning and development organization in their programming of land use management. It will also assist the local government in the design and making of policy issues. The small holder farmers are the ultimate users of the research results through well designed land management projects that are effective in ensuring sustainable development of the resources they are dependent on. 6. Work Plan 7. References Fraser, C. S., H. B. Hanley (2003). Bias compensation in rational functions for Ikonos satellite imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 69(1): 53-57. Ganas, A. E. Lagios, N. Tzannetos (2002). An investigation into the spatial accuracy of the Ikonos2 orthoimagery within an urban environment. Int. Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(17): 3513-3519. Grodecki, J. and G. Dial (2003). Block adjustment of high resolution satellite images described by rational polynomials. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 69(1): 59-68. Hu, Y., C.V., Tao (2002). Updating solutions of the rational function model using additional control information. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 68(7): 715-724. MARCAL, A.R.S., BORGER, J.S., BOMES, J.A. COSTA, P.J.F. (2005) Land cover update by supervised classification of segmented ASTER images. International Journal of Remote Sensing 26, 1347-1362. YAN, G., MAS, J.F., MAATHUIS, B.H.P., XIANGMIN, Z., VAN DIJK, P.M. (2006) Comparison of pixel-based and object-oriented image classification approaches—a case study in a coal fire area, Wuda, Inner Mongolia, China. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27, 4039-4055.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Discuss How Sherriff Presents Human Weakness

Discuss how Sherriff presents human weakness and frailty in Journeys End Journeys End was written with the intention of â€Å"letting the war speak†. The lives of the officers on the front line during 1917 are examined. A key theme that is explored throughout the play is the reactions of the mind and body, under the stress of the war. Each character represents the weakness of the human being in an individual way, but the character on which frailty is mainly focussed is Stanhope. Stanhope is the topic of many conversations within the dugout and the first conversation we see, Stanhope is mentioned.The conversation is between Osborne, the second in command, and the commanding officer of the company being relieved. The commander inquires as to whether Stanhope is â€Å"drinking like a fish†, this indicates towards the audience for the first time, that Stanhope is an alcoholic and is seen to turn to alcohol to cope with the war. Osborne jumps to the defence of Stanhope, expl aining that Stanhope is â€Å"the best company commander†. Despite Stanhope’s coping mechanism of alcohol, he still has respect shown to him by his men.This is shown throughout, yet more so in the final moments of the play when the troops are rallied by Stanhope for the raid. Stanhope is shown to reject reminders of life before the war, and if his family waiting for him back home is mentioned it will not be tolerated. He shows that he does not want to be reminded when Raleigh arrives at the dugout and Stanhope becomes agitated. The conversations between the men and Stanhope are riddled with â€Å"silence† and on stage this would show the tension between the characters build up.We see how the war has also made Stanhope paranoid, and Stanhope’s irritation and paranoia become clear when he is insistent on looking through Raleigh’s letters home, to see if he has put anything derogatory about Stanhope. He is afraid that the truth about him being an alco holic will reach home, and as Sherriff has told us, Stanhope has a fiancee waiting back home, and Stanhope does not want her view of him as this leader of the men to be damaged, especially by Raleigh writing home â€Å"and tell her I reek of whisky all day†.Stanhope’s human qualities are not shown often throughout the play, yet when Sherriff introduces his fiancee who is waiting him back in England; it adds a tender heartedness to the character. Stanhope also seems to distract his self from the war by being obsessed with cleanliness and hygiene. This is also related to the war and shows the characters drive and determination to make it through the war. Stanhope is described in the stage directions as having â€Å"well brushed† hair and is shown to have â€Å"care for† his uniform.Further in the play, the audience witnesses the death of Osborne who is seen as the caring figure within the dugout. After this, Stanhope uses anger along side the alcohol as a c oping mechanism. It is shown how Stanhope appears to have lost everything, because of Osborne’s death. He has also lost Hibbert after using his authoritative powers over him and forced him to â€Å"get out† and â€Å"go to bed†. When Raleigh tries to talk to Stanhope about how he copes, Stanhope tells him to â€Å"get out† and so loses him as well. This scene shows the beginning of the downfall of Stanhope and bodes the ending of the play with the death of his soldiers.In the play Stanhope admits to his need for alcohol to cope with the war, stating that if he was not â€Å"doped with whisky† he could â€Å"go mad with fright†. Possibly showing why he showed sympathy towards Hibbert when he was breaking down, and that if Stanhope can survive the war he could possibly change. Overall Stanhope is presented as a man with is weaknesses yet has the courage (although this could be because of the doping effects of alcohol) to push on throughout his stay in the dugout and the war. He is regarded as a hero in the eyes of his men.Sherriff shows us Stanhope as an officer with a great experience of the war, yet this is juxtaposed with the fresh new recruit who is â€Å"straight from school†, Raleigh. The young soldier is idealistic and has arrived at the front lines with little knowledge of the reality of it all, but is in search of the intangibles, honour and glory. Sherriff shows this to the audience by having Raleigh describe the war like a game at school, using words such as â€Å"cricket† and â€Å"rugger†, which show the youth, innocence and naivety of Raleigh.When the reality becomes clear, Raleigh’s attitude towards the war changes dramatically. The death of Raleigh at the end of the play sums up his characteristics in the best possible way, his innocence is shown until his final moments when he compares the wound in his back to be â€Å"just the same† as getting â€Å"kicked† in a game of â€Å"rugger†. His death signifies much more than the passing of one soldier, added with Raleigh passing, the candle flame extinguishing, shows the death of society in 1917 and of innocence, showing how nothing could return to the way it was in the years previous to the war.After the raid which occurs near the end of the play, Raleigh’s view on the war has changed after he witnesses the first deaths of people he knew. He questions as to how Stanhope can stay drinking â€Å"champagne† whilst Osborne’s body is â€Å"lying-out there†. Again this shows the audience just how naive Raleigh is, as he has never experienced the loss of someone close to him and the effect that the war has on people. Despite Raleigh’s innocence and weakness, he is determined to fight until the end, showing that his character (although naive) has strength.In his final scene, Raleigh is told he has â€Å"got a Blighty one†, yet Raleigh believes he â€Å" cant go home† showing how although it is the end, Raleigh has matured and has become a true soldier, willing to stay and fight on even in the face of adversity. Raleigh has finally achieved his goal of obtaining the intangibles, honour and glory, but the question the audience would be asking is, was his death worth gaining these? The relationship that is built up between Raleigh and Stanhope is examined from the beginning of the play, especially from the view of Raleigh worshipping Stanhope as a hero, â€Å"he’d just got his MC and been made a captain.He looked splendid†. Near the end of the play, Stanhope changes his mood from not liking the fact that Raleigh is a member of his company, to a gentler approach, â€Å"he bathes the boys face†. This shows the audience the relationships which were formed by men during the war, even if this specific event does have feminine connotations. These relationships were a necessity to combat human frailty and weakness. Osborne is conferred in two contrasting ways.In his physical appearance he is â€Å"hard as nails† and is seen as second in command of the company, but at the same time Sherriff also presents Osborne as an â€Å"uncle† to the men, due to his nature of being gentle. Stanhope seems to have a large dependency upon Osborne and this is shown when Stanhope calls him â€Å"dear old uncle†, the use of dear here shows how much Stanhope needs him. Osborne is a humble and intelligent man. This is expressed when Osborne quotes a line from Alice in Wonderland (which is the book he is reading) â€Å"how doth the little crocodile†¦with gently smiling jaws†.The audience is given a depth to Osborne’s character, and the â€Å"kid’s book† shows us his form of escapism from the war. The choice of book that is included could be seen as significant, as the characters in Alice in Wonderland are so mad, this could be used to represent the madness of th e war and how little sense it made to many people. Osborne, in some ways, has more to deal with than the rest of the officers in the dugout, and thus this shows his strength, as he must cope with the problems of the other officers, as they look up to him as â€Å"uncle†, he is an outlet for the men and allows them to show their weakness.Trotters coping mechanism is similar to that of Stanhope’s, in the way that he results to consuming a substance. It is clear that Trotter copes by eating, as he â€Å"has put on weight during the war†. Trotter also draws â€Å"a hundred and forty-four little circles on a bit o’ paper† which represent the one hundred and forty four hours which the officers must stay posted at the dugout and surrounding trench. Trotter is seen to maintain the company’s morale, as his (attempts to the) use of humour to keep spirits up, â€Å"cheer up skipper†.Trotter is shown to be rather emotionless, yet this view change s later on in the play when Stanhope states that Trotter is â€Å"always the same† his reply is â€Å"little you know† showing that Trotter isn’t coping with the war as well as the other officers thought. Trotter is also used in a way, to highlight the culture of intangibles that had swept the younger generations of this times society, as he is honoured to gain the post of second in command of the company after Osborne’s death, showing how many men joined up to escape from their lives back home and go in search of honour and glory on the battlefield.Hibbert is presented as a man whom the war has had a great psychological effect upon. In his first appearance within the play he complains about his â€Å"neuralgia†. The audience that would be viewing this play in 1928 would most likely show sympathy towards Stanhope, as he had to put up with this type of officer, yet a contemporary audience, with a greater understanding of the psychological effects th e war had upon certain people, such as â€Å"shell Shock† or PTS (post traumatic stress disorder) would most likely show sympathy towards Hibbert.Hibbert does not wish to join the other men before the big attack, â€Å"you want me to go up now? † causing him to judge others by his own set standards. Stating that Raleigh is â€Å"too keen† because he was in the trenches with the other soldiers. Hibbert is rude to his commanding officer, Stanhope, as he does not follow his orders, and from a military perspective this would not be tolerated and Hibbert would have been eligible for court martial. Mason, in the play, is the character who is not of officer rank. He is a servant to the officers within the dugout.At the beginning of the war (1914) officers were all form public schools, but as numbers started to diminish by 1917, officers were allowed to be from public or private schools. Masons distractions from the war are rather trivial, such as a tin of â€Å"aprico ts†. The inclusion of a lower class character shows how the war affected everyone, as class did not change the dangers that the soldiers faced. Out of being a servant little is seen of Mason, showing how although in the worst of circumstances, every day things such as cooking had to carry on. Critical Reviews of Journeys EndMany groups could comment upon the play and respond in different ways towards it. A Marxist would state that Sherriff does not achieve his aim, as the play only presents the middle classes who did not have to fight. And thus it does not show the horrific conditions in which many ordinary soldiers had to endure in the trenches. It does not show the fear felt by the men on the front line because the play is set in a (relatively) safe dug out, in which the officers have a servant and in comparison to the ordinary foot soldiers, are well looked after.The military may have taken a dislike to the play, due to its anti war nature and how Sherriff seems to be quest ioning the authority of high command and why the soldiers follow orders without a second thought. A lack of sympathy would have been shown by the military for the characters who suffered psychological illnesses. Sherriff did not intend the play to be anti war, yet was presented this way by the plays producer, who was known for having an anti war view. Sheriff’s aim was to let the war speak and expose the truths of it.A feminist may say that there are no female characters within the play, and that the only females that are mentioned are objectified and will always be waiting for their husbands when they return from the war. They would say the lack of females could mean that the play could not show the coping strategies of humans, and that it does not fully represent their weaknesses. Sherriff claimed that the play was intended to â€Å"let the war speak†, yet the lack of female characters within the play means that it can not show the effect the war had on women.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

The Adoration of Jenna Fox- Summaries

The The Adoration of Jenna Fox By: Mary E. Pearson Pages 1-50 Jenna Fox has just woken up from a coma after an accident she wasn’t supposed to survive and doesn’t remember a thing about her life. She is slowly starting to adjust to her new surroundings and learning small things she knows she should already know how to do. Her mother suggests that she what the discs her parents had been making since she was a baby. Jenna watches the disk and is vaguely reminded somewhat of her childhood. When Jenna explores her house she lives in she is curious as to why it is so empty and unlived in.One day when her mother goes to town and her grandmother, Lily goes to her greenhouse to avoid contact with her, Jenna sneaks out the front door and goes for a walk. On her adventure, she meets Mr. Clayton Bender, and makes friends with him. On her way back, Jenna cuts herself, which frightens her mother very much. Jenna all of a sudden has a memory of a trip to the beach with Lily that happ ened almost 15 years ago, an impossible thought but a memory none the less. After that Jenna starts remembering small things like her best friends and the T in Boston.She learns of her father’s latest invention, Bio Gel. The gel can make organ last indefinitely instead of having a limited shelf life. When Lily takes Jenna to a mission, she gets a sudden urge to get back in school to pick up where she left off. Everyone thinks it is an outrageous thought but her mother soon gives in and allows her to go to a small charter instead of a widely populated school where she could be put in a dangerous situation. Pages 51-100 Jenna is now determined to take control of her life back. On her way to Mr. Bender’s house, Jenna meets the boy he warned her about, Dane.This boy that lives at the end of her street seems to be very curious. At Mr. Bender’s House, Jenna is forced to turn away his hospitality towards her because of her special diet. After he told her he did researc h she did research on him as well. She learned that he was keeping a very big secret about his identity. When he confessed to her she felt they were better friends because of the secrets they shared. Jenna continues to watch her home movies and sparks a few of her lost memories. She remembers that she loved hot chocolate but her mother and grandmother get angry with her for disobeying her diet.She wants to pick up where she left off in school so she asks permission to start school again. Her mother allows her to attend a small charter that has a flexible schedule and a smaller class size. The first day she meets her few classmates and recognizes Dane. A boy named Ethan leads a discussion on Walden. When he makes an error, she corrects him, surprising him and her also. She is shocked again when Ethan invites her to join their group for lunch. At lunch Jenna gets a chance to meet the rest of her few classmates. Allys is the only other girl other than Rae, their teacher, and is the fir st to open up.Since everyone at the charter has a special reason for attending, Allys shares that her’s was a fatal disease that cause her to lose her limbs. Now she has prosthetics and is also the first person to tell Jenna they like her. Jenna opens up a little more about her condition. She also starts to grow a liking for Ethan as well. Lily and Claire get in an argument about Jenna’s social relationships. Jenna continues watching the discs and learning past details she’d forgotten. She starts working with Ethan at the mission until she finds a community service project of her own. She grows a closer bond with him and becomes fascinated with him.Allys expresses her feelings about FSEB and ethics problems unknowing that Jenna’s dad, founder of FoxBiosystems and creator of Bio Gel. Pages 100-150 Jenna explores the downstairs of the Cotswold and finds interest in Claire and Lily’s rooms. In Claire’s room she finds a locked door and has a nat ural instinct to look under the mattress and finds the key. Before she gets a chance to open it she is called away by someone at the door. Ethan visits her and they talk which slowly leads to them sharing a passionate kiss. Because Lily got upset with Jenna after the kiss, Jenna rebels and pours mustard into her nutrients before Lily can stop her.Jenna watches the last disc in her box and it shows Claire and Jenna having a fight about Jenna’s ballerina career. Jenna is determined to find out what is behind the closet doors. She pretends to go for a walk but sneaks into the closet instead. Inside she finds three boxes one with her full name on it. Trying to get it loose she cuts her wrist on an edge. Worried about what her mother will do she hurries to her bathroom to look at the gash. When Jenna falls down the stairs from being too dizzy, Claire discovers the cut. Now her parents are forced to tell her why there is hardly any blood coming from her wrist.They explain that she was terribly burned in the accident and something had to be done fast or she wouldn’t have made it. Her father informs her that her entire body is made up of Bio Gel. The only thing original in her is 10% of her brain. Jenna has a really hard time understanding the situation and believing that she is a real human being. She asks why they relocated and her father tells her that where they live now has a consistent temperature that will help her shelf life. She also learns the second reason for their location is Jenna being illegal with Bio Gel making up the substance of her body.Lily and Jenna have a conversation about why Lily acts so different towards Jenna. Her answer is that she let go of her granddaughter eighteen months ago and now has her in a different form. At school, Jenna is more unsocial than ever before. She is still trying to figure out what she is and what she needs to do next. Pages 151-200 Lily talks to Jenna about things she feels Jenna should know. She infor ms Jenna that before the accident she didn’t go to her room when Claire told her to; now she naturally goes without hesitation.Jenna is upset about the information but wants to prove it for herself. She waits until her father and mother chat on the Netbook and puts on a flipping plates show for them. When Claire furiously tells Jenna to go to her room, Jenna resists the urge. Her father and mother explain that they uploaded things into her when they were working on her scans. They were afraid she’d be so behind in school they uploaded the 10th through 12th grade curriculum. Jenna meets Ethan at the mission where he shares his dark secret that has burdened him.She trusts him enough to share the information she has just received. He doesn’t leave her but instead assures her she is going to get through it but warns her not to tell Allys because of her ethical standards. For a bacteria lesson, the group goes to a river scene. During her lesson, she starts talking ab out the FSEB which sparks something in Jenna. They get into a heated discussion that doesn’t end the best way. When Jenna visits Mr. Bender, she learns that someone broke into his garage but took nothing. She feels like she remembers seeing his car before but doesn’t know where from.She asks if she could use his netbook to do some research. The research is on her accident. She learns that Kara Manning and Locke Jenkins died after that accident and she would have been trialed if her condition wasn’t as deadly and severe. Jenna talks to her parents about them being dead and they said they didn’t want to push her with that information. Her mother is redecorating her so she asked for red drapes instead of the only color in her wardrobe, blue. She remembers getting the red skirt with Kara and goes on a rampage for it through the entire house.Lily shares with Jenna the escape plan if anyone from the government were to show up asking questions. When her mom goes to pick up her dad, Jenna goes to the closet. This time she discovers that the other two computers have Kara and Locke’s names on them. This sends Jenna over the edge. She runs into the forest and just lays there. Pages 201-265 Jenna gets mad at her parents for all the secrets they kept from her including the boxes. They told her they were backups in case something was to happen they would have all the blueprints and information needed to reboot her.They share the risks and complications of her situation. When she asks where Kara and Locke were they tell her that after their parents thought she was the one that caused them to get hurt they wouldn’t let the doctors in to prep everything. They both died before they could do anything. In class, they watched a long speech having to do with the FSEB. They have made many bad medical changes that negatively affected a lot of sick and injured people and the new medical act will take all control from them. Allys realized that Jenna is the daughter of Matthew Fox who she highly dislikes for his work with Bio Gel.After Mr. Bender somewhat saves Jenna from a sneak attack in the forest they go off and talk. Jenna admits she knows his name is Edward and he is her dad’s friend who set up the house and helps get her out of the country to Italy where the temperature is consistent. Jenna remembers the accident. She wasn’t driving, Kara was. But no one but the backups and she will ever know that. Jenna finds the real last disc and sees that she was under so much pressure to be perfect. At the beach, Jenna finally admits that she is tired of being on a pedestal and having so many expectations.When they get home there is a strange man there who is talking to Jenna’s father about moving the backups to a safer location. Ethan and Jenna go visit Allys who has Lupus which is causing her body to fail. They stay and talk to her for a while. Jenna confesses to her that she is really Matthew Fox’ s daughter. On the way back Ethan doesn’t want Jenna to get caught by the government and offers to take her anywhere. Lily and Jenna devise a plan to get rid of the backups. When they do, her parents are furious and tell Jenna those backups could have saved her. Jenna just wants to live her life without having a backup if she messes up.She wants to be normal more than anything. Allys’ parents visit Jenna’s parents and ask if they can help fix Allys up like they did with Jenna. The next part takes place 260 years later. Allys and Jenna live in Mr. Bender’s house. Everyone they know has past but they’re still there. They have traveled around the world speaking to people just like them. The laws of medicine have changed so much. Jenna has a daughter who she will eventually have to leave because no parent should outlive their child. The Bio Gel has been modified to make sure no one lives beyond an acceptable and appropriate time.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Building Construction And Its Effect On The Environment

Sustainable materials are environmentally helpful in our planet; it is used to produce in needle size without reducing non-renewable valuable supplies. It is also thought about to be environmentally friendly that include from a certified third-party forest standard. Throughout the building cycle, it’s a useful thing to produce a lot with very little waste. Buildings around the world are subject to a wide variety of natural important events such as floods, earthquake, windstorm, and other dangers. Comprehensible development is one of the major parts that increase the value of natural disaster. These events cannot be exactly described a possible future events, their effect is well understood. Building construction can have a long direct and indirect effect on the surrounding conditions, the society, and the economy. Different weather needs different houses. Australia, for example, has eighty different climate zones, but is often simplified to eight, varying from hot and humid to mountain-related. Working with a smaller home, the easier it is to accomplish a high energy efficiency level. Using materials from old buildings and getting some local materials can save you some headache, considering you can make any vital changes right away. Importantly, the indoor air aspect is oversight of moisture that collects over time, such as dealing with growing mold and the habitation of bacteria and viruses simultaneously as a dust mite. Interior designers should use a combination ofShow MoreRelatedEnvironmental Pollution And Its Effects On The Environment1311 Words   |  6 Pagesharm has two main aspects: 1. 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